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Overview of the role

Install new natural sustainable and ethically sourced stone or conserve, repair or replace existing natural stone in buildings and/or landscape projects.

Details of standard

This standard has options. Display duties and KSBs for:

Occupation summary

This occupation is found in the Construction industry.

The broad purpose of the occupation is to install new natural sustainable and ethically sourced stone or conserve, repair or replace existing natural stone in buildings and/or landscape projects where stonework is a key feature within the garden, including steps, walls, copings, water features, bespoke stone features and paved areas. Stonemasonry is a construction specialism and can be integral to both private and commercial projects and there are a number of specialist occupations within stonemasonry. For this standard, one of the following occupational options will be completed:

• Banker Masons who mainly work in workshops producing finished stone components to exacting tolerances from raw stone block ready for installation.

• Interior Stone Fixers who install stone components in kitchens, bathrooms, wet rooms, staircases and atria, including flooring and walling.

• Exterior Stone Fixers who install both solid masonry and hand-set stone cladding to the outside of structures.

• Memorial Masons who produce, install and repair memorial stonework for private customers and public institutions alike.

• Stone Façade Preservationists who assess, record and clean stone (and non-stone) building facades using chemical and non-chemical methods.

• Heritage Stonemasons who conserve, repair and or replace stone in historic buildings many of which are of national and international importance.

Stonemasons carry out skilled work using quarried or mined natural stone. The work will be carried out either on construction sites involving new or existing buildings, indoors or outdoors, in a workshop or in an office. They will draw, create, cut, saw, carve, mason, install, or restore/conserve/clean and repair or replace natural stone.

In their daily work, an employee may potentially interact with a number of other construction trades and may work alongside bricklayers, carpenters, glaziers, electricians, plumbers, roofers etc. as well as with architects and designers

An employee in this occupation will be responsible for carrying out specialist, skilled work to exacting tolerances following drawings, designs and given specifications against an established programme of work. In general, the Stonemason will work for a small to medium sized organisation, although their work may be part of a bigger overall project team. The employee will usually be subject to supervision although they may be expected to work unsupervised at times. They must also be able to identify problems and use their knowledge and skill to take appropriate action, but also recognise when advice and direction from a more qualified authority must be sought.

Typical job titles include:

Banker stonemason Exterior stone fixer Heritage stonemason​ Interior stone fixer Memorial stonemason Stone facade preservation

Core occupation duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 1 Select, use and maintain tools, components and equipment appropriate to the task being carried out.

K1 K2

S1 S2 S3

B1 B7

Duty 2 Interpret the appropriate work plan for the job, taking into account factors such as building age, listed status, accessibility, quality of surrounding structures, other trades in the work area, customers and related legislation and regulations.



B2 B4 B5 B6 B7

Duty 3 Identify and confirm masonry requirements against surveys, job sheets, specifications and drawings/CAD, and in accordance with Building Regulations.

K1 K3 K11 K12 K13

S5 S14 S15

B1 B2 B4 B6 B7

Duty 4 Locate, handle, store, load, transport and position materials and tools safely, minimising damage ready for installation and where applicable, in accordance with health and safety regulations.

K1 K4

S1 S5


Duty 5 Produce or repair standard architectural enrichments, prepare backgrounds to receive masonry and to set out basic masonry on buildings/structures.

K1 K2 K3 K6 K21

S1 S2 S3 S8 S9


Duty 6 Install/erect/repair masonry components and finish as required.

K1 K2 K3 K7

S1 S2 S3 S10 S12

B1 B3 B7

Duty 7 Deliver work to the manufacturer’s and customer’s quality specifications.



B2 B3 B7

Duty 8 Clear away leftover materials on completion of work and dispose of waste appropriately according to the appropriate code of practice.

K1 K10

S1 S4 S13

B1 B2 B5

Option duties

Banker Stonemason duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 9 Make moulds and templates in order to produce standard and bespoke stonemasonry components as required.

K5 K14 K15

S6 S7 S16 S17

Duty 10 Conserve or restore stonemasonry, brickwork or earthen structures.

K5 K8


Interior Stone Fixer duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 11 Prepare background surfaces for internal stone fixing.


S18 S19

Duty 12 Install internal stonework and stone flooring.

K17 K18

S20 S21

Exterior Stone Fixer duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 13 Prepare backgrounds to receive external stone cladding and set out basic external stonemasonry.

K17 K19


Duty 14 Remove, install and repair basic external stonemasonry structures and stone cladding.

K18 K20

S21 S23

Memorial Stonemason duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 15 Prepare and mix lime mortars; fix and secure memorial stonemasonry.


S24 S25

Duty 16 Provide details and finishing to memorial stones.

K23 K24


Stone Facade Preservation duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 17 Clean façade surfaces.



Duty 18 Prepare and mix lime mortars; restore facade surfaces.

K15 K26

S24 S28

Heritage Stonemason duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 19 Prepare backgrounds to receive stone cladding and set out basic external stonemasonry on heritage buildings/structures.

K8 K27 K28

S29 S30

Duty 20 Conserve or restore existing stonemasonry, brickwork or earthen structures on Heritage Structures using appropriate heritage techniques and following conservation ethics and procedures.

K5 K29 K30

S31 S32



K1: Core - Health and safety: Health & Safety at Work Act 1974, approved codes of practice and industry guidance for the stone industry, reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR), personal protective equipment (PPE), manual handling, Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH), Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER), and how they must be applied in the workplace. Risk assessments and dynamic risk assessment, manual handling and working at height. Back to Duty

K2: Core - Stonemasonry tools, components and equipment appropriate to the required methods of work; understanding of how to safely use and maintenance tools/equipment to achieve the required performance and finish quality; Pre/Post-use checks and how to apply safeguards when using and maintaining stonemasonry tools, components and equipment. Back to Duty

K3: Core - The overall program requirements, including procedures and resources available, sequencing of work to be completed and estimating timescales for work; how to maintain workflow documentation and when to report any circumstances which may affect the work program. Back to Duty

K4: Core - Movement of materials and movement/storage of stone and the problems/damage that can occur and avoidance methods. Back to Duty

K5: Banker Stonemason/Heritage Stonemason - Understand evidence of existing masonry to enable production of replacement components; templates and mould production for use in natural stone component manufacture; methods of obtaining true and square surfaces, stopped ends and curved mouldings with understanding of mould shape consistency; different stone types and the differing properties of the stone to be used e.g. limestone, sandstone, granite, marble, slate. Back to Duty

K6: Core - Methods of preparing surfaces to receive enrichments; methods of removing deteriorated and/or inappropriate materials; how to mix mortars and adhesives to agreed specification; the properties and applications of mortars and sand renders, adhesives, grouts, substrates, screeds (including self-levelling compounds), resins, quick lime, putty lime, hydraulic lime and lime washes. Back to Duty

K7: Core - Methods of erecting and dismantling shores, struts, props and supports to structures, whilst maintaining historical integrity; tooling surfaces to the required finish to match existing masonry; understand bedding plane position to suit the use of the stone component; positioning and securing stones in the required location. Back to Duty

K8: Banker Stonemason/Heritage Stonemason - Recognition and reporting of sensitive areas, endangered/protected flora and fauna, salvageable materials/components; how to source sustainable and ethically sourced stone; methods of recognised conservation techniques . Back to Duty

K9: Core - Interpreting the organisational and manufacturers’ quality standards, how to check stone for faults to ensure work conforms to the customer's expectations; how to record and report any variations in expected quality and how to implement any necessary corrective action. Back to Duty

K10: Core - Environmental considerations in accordance with the Environmental Protection Act: safe disposal of waste, minimising waste (re-use and re-cycle), waste contractors permit, energy efficiency, how to contribute to zero/low carbon outcomes. Back to Duty

K11: Core - Other workshop or on-site functions that masons interact with, for example surveyors, designers, engineers; their purpose and inter-dependencies; Internal and external customers. Back to Duty

K12: Core - Relevant Building regulations and codes of practice. Back to Duty

K13: Core - Communication techniques; verbal, written and digital; use industry terminology. Back to Duty

K14: Banker Stonemason - The need for different components and the different types of moulds for natural stone which can be used to assist in their production. Back to Duty

K15: Banker Stonemason/Stone Facade Preservation - When and how to use bespoke natural stone components and how to accurately shape and prepare them. Back to Duty

K16: Interior Stone Fixer - The faults to look for and checks to be carried out on existing internal surfaces to receive stonework; how to clean, prepare and select and apply sealants and protection to surfaces prior to any installation. Back to Duty

K17: Interior Stone Fixer/Exterior Stone Fixer - Methods of preparing surfaces to receive stone fixings/components. Back to Duty

K18: Interior Stone Fixer/Exterior Stone Fixer - Methods of finishing and protecting stone fixings/components. Back to Duty

K19: Exterior Stone Fixer - Methods of installing load bearing support and restraint systems, insulation (membranes and fire stops), cavity trays and damp proof membranes (DPM); how to waterproof and protect existing external surfaces. Back to Duty

K20: Exterior Stone Fixer - Methods of installing, supporting and finishing external cladding, suitable to the location, environment and in-line with job specification. Back to Duty

K21: Core - Different types of lime mortars; application methods. Back to Duty

K22: Memorial Stonemason - The importance of checking and recording ground and surface conditions; how to excavate area safely; how to lay foundations and install memorial stones & grave surrounds. Back to Duty

K23: Memorial Stonemason - The protocols relating to the bereaved and the public; specific requirements for sites of special interest, consecrated and non-consecrated ground, historical and environmental significance. Back to Duty

K24: Memorial Stonemason - Methods of adding details, lettering & ornamentation to stone; finishing techniques and hand polishing. Back to Duty

K25: Stone Facade Preservation - Surface condition of facades recording requirements (how and why) prior to commencing work; methods of chemical and non-chemical cleaning processes. Back to Duty

K26: Stone Facade Preservation - Methods of restoring façades and joints on flat, textured and moulded natural stone and on burnt clay, art stone and concrete. Back to Duty

K27: Heritage Stonemason - Photographic, written or digital record requirements in Heritage conservation projects prior to any work being carried out. Back to Duty

K28: Heritage Stonemason - Methods and tool selection for drilling and cutting stone backgrounds to receive fixings sympathetic to the existing condition of heritage masonry; how to form openings which conform to the requirements for heritage planning and buildings regulations. Back to Duty

K29: Heritage Stonemason - Recognised conservation techniques to maintain heritage and archaeological integrity; the principles of minimum intervention and reversible alterations; how to identify stone type within existing building and how to refer for analysis as appropriate; the importance of the historical context of the project. Back to Duty

K30: Heritage Stonemason - Methods of matching masonry components with existing structures, straight walling returns and rakes for new build and for buildings that are not straight and true; How incorporate pre-prepared conservation masonry components, e.g. quoin, jamb, cill stones and coping; How to generate designs/lettering using computer equipment; The principles of selecting and applying hand cut ornamentation. Back to Duty


S1: Core - Carry out safe stonemasonry working practices, comply with health, safety and welfare legislation, conduct risk assessments; Report any workplace hazards, incidents, near misses, accidents or emergencies. Back to Duty

S2: Core - Apply all safeguards and complete pre-use checks when using tools. Back to Duty

S3: Core - Select and use the appropriate tools, components and equipment; Repair and maintain tools, components and equipment. Back to Duty

S4: Core - Plan the sequence of stonemasonry work required; Ensure work is completed safely within the allocated time and budget and report any situations which affect the work schedule. Back to Duty

S5: Core - Select the required type and quantity of materials, move, handle and store safely. Back to Duty

S6: Banker Stonemason - Measure, mark out, cut and finish standard templates or moulds. Back to Duty

S7: Banker Stonemason - Produce true and square natural stone components. Back to Duty

S8: Core - Set out and work stone to receive enrichments such as flat, moulded, straight and curved, internal and external mitres, stop ends and returned ends. Back to Duty

S9: Banker Stonemason - Produce enrichments for example repeated enrichment (egg and dart, or tongue and dart, or bead and reel), v-cut carving, high relief carving or low relief carving. Back to Duty

S10: Core - Position and secure the stones in the required locations and identify bedding planes to suit the use of the stone component; When securing stone, ensure correct measurement, marking out, shape, level, fit, finish and position. Back to Duty

S11: Banker Stonemason - Prepare, conserve, repair or refurbish existing stone masonry by replicating, removing, replacing or stabilising the existing structure; prepare mortars, joint finishing and applying surface finishes, all of which match existing masonry as close as possible or are in line with the conservation plan. Back to Duty

S12: Core - Comply with specific organisational and manufacturer's quality standards as required by the job specification and report any variation in quality, implementing agreed corrective actions where required. Back to Duty

S13: Core - Clean and tidy work area when work is finished; Store, transport and dispose of masonry waste; Reduce, reuse or recycle waste produced; Use work practices and resources which will contribute to zero/low carbon outcomes Back to Duty

S14: Core - Communicate with colleagues/customers; use industry terminology. Back to Duty

S15: Core - Ensure the products are the right size and fit to meet the design specification. Back to Duty

S16: Banker Stonemason - Produce basic section bed and face moulds for natural stone components. Back to Duty

S17: Banker Stonemason - Produce bespoke natural stone components: for example shaped curved on plan, tracery, ramp and twist, spheres, entablature, ionic components or finials Back to Duty

S18: Interior Stone Fixer - Check and prepare existing internal surfaces to receive stonework; apply pre-sealants, water and solvent based final sealants and protection. Back to Duty

S19: Interior Stone Fixer - Mix and apply mortar and sand renders, adhesives and grouts, substrates and screeds (including self-levelling); install thermal, movement and expansion joints. Back to Duty

S20: Interior Stone Fixer - Form angles, reveals, cills and soffits, floor drainage and outlets; install membranes and lay natural stone flooring to regular and irregular surfaces, fix trims and movement joints including treads, risers and landings; fix internal stonework to vertical, horizontal and inclined wall and floor surfaces; fit internal treads, risers and work surfaces. Back to Duty

S21: Interior Stone Fixer/Exterior Stone Fixer - Grout, seal, clean, secure and finish stonework; bed, joint and point natural stone flooring, match finishes where possible and fix accessories (e.g. wire restraint fixings, channels) to wall slabs. Back to Duty

S22: Exterior Stone Fixer - Prepare backgrounds for load bearing support and restraint systems, insulation (e.g. membranes and fire stops), cavity trays and damp proof membranes (DPM); apply waterproof sealants to background surfaces; install and remove mechanical fixings, shims and spacers. Back to Duty

S23: Exterior Stone Fixer - Install and fix external cladding with load-bearing support and restraint systems; repair or replace defective stone cladding as required; identify and mix mortars, resins and adhesives; identify and fix suitable reinforcements and fixings; form suitable joint finishes which are sympathetic to existing building. Back to Duty

S24: Memorial Stonemason/Stone Facade Preservation - Prepare and mix lime mortars, hydraulic and non-hydraulic limes, lime mortars with additives or lime mortars with fibres (natural or synthetic) as appropriate. Back to Duty

S25: Memorial Stonemason - Install and secure memorial stones, ensuring that ground and surface conditions are checked and recorded, area is excavated and foundations are laid. Back to Duty

S26: Memorial Stonemason - Mark out, position, inscribe, ornament and finish details on memorial stones; produce and use templates for sandblasting; safely use sandblasting equipment to produce details, lettering and ornamentation; finish memorial work using gilding and hand polishing. Back to Duty

S27: Stone Facade Preservation - Dismantle facade surfaces to allow for safe and effective cleaning and preservation; brush, use jets and sprays to clean facades; effectively clean flat, textured & moulded stone and art stone using chemical and non-chemical methods; effectively clean non-masonry surfaces e.g. burnt clay, cast stone, metal, plastic, plastic-coated materials, wood, glass by chemical and non-chemical methods. Back to Duty

S28: Stone Facade Preservation – Measure, mark out, cut, fit, mix, spread, dress, descale, point, position and secure when restoring façade surfaces; Restore in-situ units, façades and joints on flat, textured and moulded natural stone and on burnt clay, art stone and concrete. Back to Duty

S29: Heritage Stonemason - Collect records using photographic, written or digital collection methods prior to any work being carried out. Back to Duty

S30: Heritage Stonemason - Drill and cut stone backgrounds to receive fixings sympathetic to the existing condition of heritage masonry; safely form openings which conform to the requirements for heritage planning and buildings regulations. Back to Duty

S31: Heritage Stonemason - Apply conservation techniques to maintain heritage and archaeological accuracy, using heritage techniques and procedures where appropriate, with minimum intervention and minimum reversible alterations. Back to Duty

S32: Heritage Stonemason - Match new masonry components with existing structures and incorporate pre-prepared conservation masonry components; Finish by applying hand cut ornamentation or lettering where required. Back to Duty


B1: Core - Prioritises health, safety and environment-, for example, always ensuring the correct PPE is worn for the task being undertaken. Back to Duty

B2: Core - Professional, for example, develops good working relationships recognising dependencies, uses co-operative approaches to optimise workflow and productivity with limited supervision, shows respect for colleagues. Back to Duty

B3: Core - Takes responsibility, for example, completes own work to required quality standards and has eye for detail/accuracy. Back to Duty

B4: Core - Applies logical thinking, for example, uses clear and valid reasoning when making decisions related to undertaking the work instructions. Back to Duty

B5: Core - Works effectively, for example, undertakes work in a reliable, tidy and productive manner. Back to Duty

B6: Core - Effective time management, for example uses their time effectively to complete work to schedule and always arrives at, and ready to work on time. Back to Duty

B7: Core - Adjustable when required, for example adapts to changes to work instructions or variations in workplace contexts and environments. Back to Duty


English and Maths

English and maths qualifications form a mandatory part of all apprenticeships and must be completed before an apprentice can pass through gateway. The requirements are detailed in the current version of the apprenticeship funding rules.

Additional details

Occupational Level:


Duration (months):



this apprenticeship will be reviewed in accordance with our change request policy.

Status: Retired
Level: 2
Reference: ST0442
Version: 1.1
Date updated: 10/08/2023
Route: Construction and the built environment
Typical duration to gateway: 24 months (this does not include EPA period)
Maximum funding: £11000
Options: Banker Stonemason, Interior Stone Fixer, Exterior Stone Fixer, Memorial Stonemason, Stone Facade Preservation, Heritage Stonemason
LARS Code: 637
EQA Provider: Ofqual
Employers involved in creating the standard: Chichester Stoneworks, Carrek Limited, Stone Restoration Services Ltd, Putney & Wood, Szerelmey Ltd, Burrows Davies Ltd, Cliveden Conservation Workshop, PAYE, A F Jones Sonemasons Limited, Deadalus Conservation, Laing O Rourke, DBR, Lainge Orourke, Vetter, Stone Train, CITB, Lymn, CWF, Leeds college of Building

Version log

Version Change detail Earliest start date Latest start date Latest end date
1.2 End-point assessment plan revised 10/08/2023 Not set Not set
1.1 End-point assessment plan revised 20/02/2023 09/08/2023 Not set
1.0 Approved for delivery 28/06/2021 19/02/2023 Not set

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