Overview of the role

Research, design, craft, construction and fitting of stained glass.

Details of standard

Occupation summary

This occupation is found in the creative and decorative arts as well as architectural and construction industries, often within the heritage sector. 

The term ‘stained glass’ will for ease be used throughout this document. However, the term covers all forms of lead glazing, lead lights, quarry glazing, etc. and encompasses a broad range of techniques e.g. glass painting and staining, printing, enameling, etching, sand blasting, bonding, etc.

Typically, much of the work will take place in a specialist studio with a small amount of work taking place on-site.

Projects may include but are not limited to commissioned stained glass design and construction as well as stained glass repair or restoration.

The broad purpose of the occupation is the research, design, craft, construction and fitting of stained glass.  This includes conservation and restoration of stained glass as well as working on new commissions or architectural projects. These projects range from small to large-scale public and private commissions, that can involve the research, design and construction of new and existing stained glass within historical and/or contemporary contexts in public or domestic buildings. The occupation requires skills in dealing with people and working as a member of a team, researching and analysing sometimes historical and technical information, and creativity in designing to include drawing and rendering stained glass cartoons and cutline drawings. In addition to this the occupation requires hand skills in the handling and cutting of glass, glass painting, leading, soldering and cementing. All these skills are considered essential to creating stained glass.

In their daily work, an employee in this occupation interacts with other members of their team and their supervisor within a workshop setting, and with members of the general public, clients, suppliers and other contractors when discussing projects or working on-site. An employee in this occupation will be required to handle glass artefacts, designs, tools and materials in a responsible and professional manner, and to participate in the maintenance of  health and safety standards for themselves and their team. They are required to act responsibly, exercise sound judgement and analysis of information and demonstrate good practice in the undertaking of specialist projects which are sometimes of historical significance and value. These standards would apply regardless of the sizes of employer.

Typically, a person in this occupation would be working under supervision from a more senior and experienced team member. Teams are in the main made up of apprentices/trainees  and a small number of professionals who work under the management of the studio director.

Typical job titles include:

Conservation glazier Glass painter Lead glazier Stained glass artist Stained glass conservator Stained glass craftsperson Stained glass designer Stained glass fabricator

Occupation duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 1 Assess and manage safe use and storage of specialist materials and equipment in line with health & safety policies and support working team in these tasks.

K1 K2 K14 K15



Duty 2 Demonstrate clear and careful communication using good people skills, when giving and receiving instruction both within the project team and with suppliers, customers and clients such as architects and delegates from the Heritage sector.




Duty 3 Carry out all work within the context of an artefact's value, which may be of sentimental, monetary, historic and / or cultural significance.



B3 B8

Duty 4 Demonstrate respect and responsibility for the day to day care of glass and work carefully and responsibly when undertaking the moving, handling, cleaning or protection of artefacts.

K4 K5

S3 S10

B2 B3

Duty 5 Prepare all work, research and documentation required including accurate measurements and/ or templates within studio and on-site.

K6 K7 K8

S4 S5 S6 S7

B3 B4 B5 B6

Duty 6 Draw up and develop designs, set-out cartoons and take rubbings as required by each project which could include transferring template shape and detail.

K7 K8

S4 S5 S6 S7

B3 B4 B5 B6

Duty 7 Dismantle or assemble glass panels and document glass condition, location and layout as required for each project.

K9 K10 K14

S8 S10 S11 S15

B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9

Duty 8 Safely handle sheet glass and leaded panels.

K11 K12 K13 K14 K15

S9 S10

B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9

Duty 9 Safely cut a range of specialist glasses and use the correct procedures for specific materials.

K11 K12 K13 K15

S9 S14

B5 B6 B7

Duty 10 Handle, cut and assemble specialist materials utilizing appropriate tools and equipment in order to construct architectural glass as required e.g. stained-glass soldering and lead or spacers in double glazed units.

K11 K12 K13 K14 K15 K16

S9 S10 S14

B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9

Duty 11 Apply appropriate waterproofing materials to fabricated architectural glass e.g. cement to leaded panels or sealant to double glazed units.

K17 K18 K19

S11 S12 S13 S14 S15

B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9

Duty 12 Assist in the tasks required to fit architectural glass within a site and comply with building, environmental and security regulations.

K16 K19


B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9

Duty 13 Ensure a clean working area within the workshop or on-site, maintaining materials and tools in an organised work area.

K1 K2


B1 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9



K1: Basic health and safety requirements associated within the workshop and on-site, including COSHH legislation, risk assessment method statements, working at height, use of tools, materials and associated processes. Back to Duty

K2: The hazards associated with different materials and sustainable waste disposal processes. Back to Duty

K3: The importance and requirements of clear communication to staff team, clients and external colleagues. Back to Duty

K4: The context of each project through research and consider this in your working process. E.g. monetary, historical or cultural value. Back to Duty

K5: The developments of artistic styles, processes and materials as well as the wider architectural and historic context of stained glass within a particular building/setting. Back to Duty

K6: Appropriate research for each project and how to utilise a range of relevant and credible sources. Back to Duty

K7: The information required to be collected during site visits to enable project work to progress e.g. measurements required and how to use templates. Back to Duty

K8: The requirements for developing designs and which methods should be used to inform the designs e.g. knowing when to use a rubbing or a cut-line drawing. Back to Duty

K9: How to dismantle and assemble glass panels to ensure glass can be removed or replaced without damage. Back to Duty

K10: The importance of accurate documentation e.g. recording of positioning, damage and previous repairs. Back to Duty

K11: Materials commonly used in architectural glass windows including different types of glass e.g. flash glass, hand blown and machine-made glass. Back to Duty

K12: How to safely and correctly cut specialist glass using appropriate hand tools e.g. correct hand positioning when using glass cutter. Back to Duty

K13: Different storage and handling considerations for fragile/large/heavy glass panels. Back to Duty

K14: How to select and handle appropriate materials for fabrication. E.g. Lead types. Back to Duty

K15: How to cut and shape materials when fabricating. E.g. Lead or other materials. Back to Duty

K16: How to construct a large-scale architectural glass panel to maximize stability. E.g. lead matrix. Back to Duty

K17: Joining or soldering processes specific to fabrication. E.g. Stained glass fabrication or bonding techniques. Back to Duty

K18: The importance of correct waterproofing procedures and selection of materials. E.g. cementing or sealants. Back to Duty

K19: The importance of building and environmental regulations and security requirements for a window within an architectural context. Back to Duty


S1: Apply health and safety precautions associated within the workshop and on-site, including COSHH, safe handling and useage of tools, materials and associated processes, use of PPE, adhering to risk assessment method statements and complying with working at height legislation. Back to Duty

S2: Clearly communicate information to staff colleagues and external clients/stakeholders. Back to Duty

S3: Collecting, documenting and applying appropriate research for each project and utilising a range of relevant and credible sources including photography, sketches and note-taking. Back to Duty

S4: Accurately measure widths, heights, bar positions, lead profiles, etc. of openings e.g. using tape measures and fabricating templates of openings. Back to Duty

S5: Preparing accurate drawings and cartoons using measurements and templates taken on-site. Back to Duty

S6: Create rubbings using paper and wax method to faithfully reproduce original designs. Back to Duty

S7: Accurately and appropriately document existing condition of panel through photography, drawing and note-taking. Back to Duty

S8: Safely and systematically dismantle or assemble glass panels using the appropriate tools to ensure glass can be removed or re-assembled without damage. Back to Duty

S9: Safely and correctly cut specialist glass using appropriate hand tools e.g. glass cutter, using appropriate positioning for both hand and type of glass. Back to Duty

S10: Ensure correct storage and safe handling is used for fragile/ large/heavy glass panels. Back to Duty

S11: Undertake construction processes appropriate to project including preparation and cleaning. E.g. using a soldering iron for stained-glass or bonding glass elements. Back to Duty

S12: Application of correct waterproofing procedures, selecting correct materials. E.g. cementing or sealing. Back to Duty

S13: Select and handle correct specialist materials appropriate to the task e.g. flat leads, convex leads. Back to Duty

S14: Safely cut and shape specialist materials using appropriate tools. E.g. lead or glass Back to Duty

S15: Construct using appropriate methods depending on fabricating technique. E.g. lead matrices to maximize stability which ensures longevity. Back to Duty


B1: Awareness and proactive approach towards the legal health and safety obligations required in the workplace, both individually and towards others. Back to Duty

B2: Awareness of effective communication and teamwork within studio and external stakeholder engagements including appreciation of allied trades and how they all contribute to the project. Back to Duty

B3: A methodical and organised approach to collecting, clearly presenting and applying research. Back to Duty

B4: Maintaining accuracy and an eye for detail when conducting all work. Back to Duty

B5: Consistently selecting most appropriate methods and ways of working for each project. Back to Duty

B6: Maintaining systematic an organised approach to tasks. Back to Duty

B7: Respect and care of tools and equipment. Back to Duty

B8: Care and appreciation of the artefact being worked on e.g. sentimental, historic and monetary value. Back to Duty

B9: Appreciate own knowledge and skill levels and recognise when the situation may be beyond own capabilities. Back to Duty


English and Maths

Apprentices without level 2 English and maths will need to achieve this level prior to taking the End-Point Assessment. For those with an education, health and care plan or a legacy statement, the apprenticeship’s English and maths minimum requirement is Entry Level 3. A British Sign Language (BSL) qualification is an alternative to the English qualification for those whose primary language is BSL.

Additional details

Occupational Level:


Duration (months):



This apprenticeship standard will be reviewed after three years

Status: Approved for delivery
Level: 4
Reference: ST0912
Version: 1.0
Date updated: 09/02/2023
Approved for delivery: 13 September 2021
Route: Creative and design
Typical duration to gateway: 36 months (this does not include EPA period)
Maximum funding: £27000
LARS Code: 661
EQA Provider: Ofqual

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Contact us about this apprenticeship

Employers involved in creating the standard: AuditStar, Closed and Redundant Churches, Institute of Science and Arts at UWTSD, Chapel Studio, Holywell Glass, Jonathan and Ruth Cooke Ltd, BSMGP, ICON, UWTSD

Version log

Version Change detail Earliest start date Latest start date Latest end date
1.0 Approved for delivery 13/09/2021 Not set Not set

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