Overview of the role

Building, repairing and servicing all kinds of bicycles.

Details of standard

Occupation summary

This occupation is found in the bicycle industry, which in the United Kingdom employs several thousand people. Bicycle mechanics may work in independent bicycle shops, hire centres, bicycle workshops and larger non-specialist retailers, as well as for sports clubs, race teams and bicycle-tour operators and other bicycle related organisations. Cycling is on the increase as a means of transport and as a leisure activity, with an increasing range of bicycles on offer – some with complex technology, making it an exciting and varied industry to work in.

The broad purpose of the occupation is to build, repair and service all kinds of bicycles – for example road, mountain, hybrid, recumbent, disabled adapted, electric and other human powered road and off-road vehicles. As a definition, bicycles are human powered road vehicles with a varying number of wheels; this can include uni-cycles, tricycles, quadricycles and so on. Electric bicycles are electrically assisted or adapted bicycles as opposed to electric motorcycles. They work in bicycle shops, dedicated workshops, in the field for bicycle racing teams or independently as mobile mechanics and other areas where bicycles play a prominent part.

When a bicycle is brought in for repair or service or when an ‘in-house’ bicycle needs to built, rebuilt or repaired, they run diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the problem, and then take the necessary steps to fix it. When parts aren’t available to hand, they will instigate the order for them to be obtained from a distributor or manufacturer. Sometimes bicycle repairs can be as simple as replacing cables or tyres, but sometimes they can require more complicated procedures like adjusting a frame or repairing brakes and gears. They may build bicycles or wheels from scratch. Whether a repair or build they need to complete safety checks. They may or may not interact with customers depending on the workplace, this may include talking to the customer to help identify the fault, providing estimates – recommending when it is economically viable to repair,  and the handover of the built or repaired bicycle with an explanation of the work completed. They will need to complete documentation for example, relating to the work completed or warranty claims.

In their daily work, an employee in this occupation interacts with other bicycle mechanics depending on size of operation and suppliers; interacting with customers or clients is usually part of the role.

An employee in this occupation will be responsible for responsible for completing work under the supervision of a senior mechanic or other management structure depending on the organisation. The work can be physically demanding and involves using various tools and chemicals, like cleaning products and greasing agents. Working in a manner that ensures the health and safety of self and others is essential.

Typical job titles include:

Bicycle mechanic Green leaf Bike mechanic Green leaf Cycle mechanic Green leaf

Occupation duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 1 Build a bicycle from scratch to a customer’s or client’s specification.

K1 K2 K3 K4

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19 S20 S25

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 2 Identify problems with a bicycle and discuss solutions with the customer or client.

K1 K2 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 K10

S1 S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 3 Estimate the cost of repairs and give quotes; advising on economic viability.

K4 K5 K11

S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 4 Carry out a bicycle service and safety checks.

K1 K2 K3 K4 K12

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19 S20 S21 S22 S23

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 5 Carry out repairs and replace parts for example, changing brake cables and chains.

K1 K2 K3 K4 K12

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24 S25

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 6 Clean, degrease and lubricate bicycle parts.

K1 K2 K4 K8 K13

S17 S25

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 7 Give advice to customers or clients, including the sale of bikes, parts and accessories.

K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K10 K13 K14 K15

S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B7 B8

Duty 8 Take bookings for repairs and process paperwork via paper or computerised systems.

K5 K6 K7 K16

S19 S20 S22

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 9 Support retail or contractual processes and warranty claims.

K1 K2 K3 K4 K17

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24 S25

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 10 Maintain and adhere to the industry standards and best practice for quality control over their own work and take an active role in general workshop quality control.

K17 K18 K19 K20

S17 S25

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8

Duty 11 Maintain bicycle mechanic tools and equipment; and workshop tidiness.



B1 B2 B3 B4



K1: The types, applications and unique characteristics of all types of bicycles, tricycles, recumbent and other pedal, hand and electrically-assisted powered bicycles (e-bikes), other derivatives and the associated technology. Back to Duty

K2: Diagnostic and assessment principles required to service, repair and modify the mechanical aspects of bicycles to meet manufacturer specifications and customers’ or clients’ requirements. Back to Duty

K3: The latest developments to bicycles, bicycle components and tools and equipment. Back to Duty

K4: Legislation and required compliance within the bicycle industry, including bicycle Regulations (for example, BS ISO 4210.2 (2015), standard for electric bikes EN15194 (2015), and all future modifications or updates; the safe disposal and recycling of associated waste (including waste oils, cleaning fluids, batteries, tyres, etc). Back to Duty

K5: Bicycle repair shop operations including ordering, stock control, correct use of documentation such as receipts, order forms, repair forms. Back to Duty

K6: Types of customer interaction and customer service techniques including when to contact the customer, the tone that should be adopted, appropriately timed and follow up communication – both verbal and well written; adjusting approach to take account of customers’ or clients’ needs including cultural requirements. Back to Duty

K7: Principles of selling and upselling bicycle and bicycle products and calculating discounts. Back to Duty

K8: Health and safety legislation, policy and practice; manual handling, Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH); how to ensure the safety of customers and mechanics (risk and hazard identification); correct use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Back to Duty

K9: Operation of manual and computer booking systems and EPOS (Electronic Point Of Sale) systems. Back to Duty

K10: The rights and responsibilities of an employee and employer, including awareness of Equality and Diversity Legislation. Back to Duty

K11: Costing principles, cost hierarchy of appropriate parts, assessment of component compatibility, time required to fix; summarising in a quote. Back to Duty

K12: Manufacturer specifications - when and where to use them. Back to Duty

K13: Principles of handling hazardous goods including Lithium ion batteries, their safe handling, storage and shipping of damaged items, emergency procedures, knowing when to ask for third party advice. Back to Duty

K14: Standard operating functions of bicycles in normal use, when failed or is not fit for purpose, such as parts that regularly break or go missing and need to be replaced, including chain wear features. Back to Duty

K15: Duty care to customers for example, health and safety. Back to Duty

K16: Information technology applications used in the bicycle workshop environment, including excel, databases and search engines. Back to Duty

K17: Manufacturers’ and organisations’ warranty policies, what they cover and what they don’t and procedures that must be followed. Back to Duty

K18: Project management techniques; planning and the importance of meeting project deadlines. Back to Duty

K19: Investigating causes of defects and maintenance issues; problem solving. Back to Duty

K20: Who to contact about common defects and how to address them. Back to Duty


S1: Use specialist bicycle diagnostic equipment to identify fault and formulate a plan to solve the problems; identifying when it is uneconomical to proceed. Back to Duty

S2: Use cycle workstand correctly to safely and securely hold a bicycle on the appropriate part of the frame. Back to Duty

S3: Service a cup and cone type hub, identifying worn parts and correct replacements. Back to Duty

S4: Remove and replace sealed cartridge bearings using appropriate tools. Back to Duty

S5: Service cable operated brake systems, correctly sizing and routing cabling using the correct spare parts and torque settings. Back to Duty

S6: Bleed hydraulic brake systems. Back to Duty

S7: Service derailleur gear systems, correctly sizing and routing cabling using correct spare parts and torque settings; straighten a derailleur hanger. Back to Duty

S8: Tap the crank arm threads. Back to Duty

S9: Identify the different standards of cranks and bottom brackets; remove and replace crank arms, bottom brackets and tap and face the bottom bracket shell. Back to Duty

S10: Identify chain wear; assess compatibility issues, taking account of chain line and correctly split and install a quick link based chain. Back to Duty

S11: Tape road handlebars. Back to Duty

S12: Remove and replace a set of forks, taking account of the correct way to cut a fork steering column to size. Hydraulic fork servicing, disassemble and clean stations and cartridges and re-grease properly. Back to Duty

S13: Remove, replace and service a headset, taking account of sizing standards. Back to Duty

S14: Perform alignment checks to a bicycle frame. Back to Duty

S15: Hand-build a wheel of differing complexities (for example, from simple 3-cross to manufacturer specific wheel systems) in the patterns required for non-disc, front disc and rear disc to the required tolerance and correctly dished and tensioned. Back to Duty

S16: Set up and adjustment of internal gears. Back to Duty

S17: Conduct quality assurance check of build or repair work completed. Back to Duty

S18: Complete handover once completed build or repair is finished, including advising on further and future work required, changes to operation, required on-going maintenance and complete paperwork as appropriate. Back to Duty

S19: Serve customers or clients on any required area of the store; refer them on to a more senior colleague or to ask for help; seek after market sales. Back to Duty

S20: Communicate via suitable means with customers (telephone, text, email, social media) in order to ensure good service is maintained. Back to Duty

S21: Use catalogues (hard copy and online) to identify parts and order to fulfil customers needs. Back to Duty

S22: Use manual system and workshop diary and complete any associated paperwork. Back to Duty

S23: Deal with complaints, following employer and manufacturers policies. Back to Duty

S24: Identify when something has failed or is not fit for purpose. Back to Duty

S25: Maintain proper tool maintenance and general workshop cleanliness and tidiness. Back to Duty


B1: Have a safety first behaviour – always use appropriate safety equipment and PPE and has customers’ safety in mind. Back to Duty

B2: Work efficiently as a member of the workshop team; takes account of deadlines; takes responsibility to deal with or report issues. Back to Duty

B3: Behave in a manner that aligns with the company ethos, including prompt timekeeping, smart presentation of self and working area and good personal hygiene. Back to Duty

B4: Takes responsibility for keeping own knowledge and skills up to date. Back to Duty

B5: Act with integrity, honestly advising customers; demonstrates a passion for bicycles. Back to Duty

B6: Acts as a responsible advocate for the business. Back to Duty

B7: Results–driven attitude, working in an effective and efficient manner in order to comply with contractual terms and customer expectations. Back to Duty

B8: Receptive to constructive feedback from peers and management and proactive in giving appropriate feedback to others. Back to Duty


English and Maths

English and maths qualifications form a mandatory part of all apprenticeships and must be completed before an apprentice can pass through gateway. The requirements are detailed in the current version of the apprenticeship funding rules.

Additional details

Occupational Level:


Duration (months):



this apprenticeship will be reviewed in accordance with our change request policy.

Status: Approved for delivery
Level: 2
Reference: ST0622
Version: 1.2
Date updated: 11/07/2023
Approved for delivery: 22 August 2018
Route: Engineering and manufacturing
Typical duration to gateway: 18 months (this does not include EPA period)
Maximum funding: £7000
LARS Code: 339
EQA Provider: Ofqual
Employers involved in creating the standard: Bay Cycles, Bicycle Rehab, Bournemouth Cycleworks, Cycle-R, Cycle Surgery, Cycle Tech Oldham, Cotswold Outdoor, Decathlon, Evans Cycles, Madison, Isla Bicycles, Recycle Bicycles, Serco (UK)

Version log

Version Change detail Earliest start date Latest start date Latest end date
1.2 End-point assessment plan and standard revised 11/07/2023 Not set Not set
1.1 End-point assessment plan and standard revised 10/03/2023 10/07/2023 Not set
1.0 Approved for delivery 22/08/2018 09/03/2023 Not set

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