Overview of the role

Making bakery products in a craft, plant or retail bakery.

Details of standard

This standard has options. Display duties and KSBs for:

Occupation summary

This occupation is found in manufacturing and retail sectors. Employers range in size from small to large.

Bakers may work in a craft bakery, plant bakery or retail outlet. A craft baker works in a production unit producing hand crafted bakery products. They supply their own retail outlets or sell direct to third party wholesale customers. A plant baker produces bakery products using large scale production methods, to supply food and retail outlets. They work in a large-scale production facility, with a high level of automation in a continuous process. A retail baker is involved in both production and shop floor activities. They produce, bake off and display products for direct sale to customers.

This is a core and option apprenticeship standard. Apprentices must be trained and assessed against the core and one option. The options are:

  • Option 1. Craft baker
  • Option 2. Plant baker
  • Option 3. Retail baker

The broad purpose of the occupation is to produce or bake-off food safe bakery products and package and label them to specification. Bakery products may be bread, pastries or confectionery. Bread includes buns/rolls, enriched doughs and loaves. Pastries include croissants, danish pastries, puff pastries and tarts. Whilst confectionery includes cakes, cupcakes, muffins and swiss rolls. Depending on the type of bakery, bakers may produce one product or a range of bakery products. They use a range of tools and equipment, which they clean and check. It is important that they complete bakery documentation/records, for example compliance checks. They also contribute to material and stock control, maintaining the production environment, and product and process improvement.

Producing a wide range of varied products is a bigger part of the craft baker role. This requires scaling up/down of recipes and enhanced finishing of products. Working at scale requires plant bakers to operate handovers and conduct production quality assurance/checks. Whilst the retail bakers’ role, includes serving customers and display and replenishment of products.

Bakers may be required to work shifts and unsociable hours. It is often a physically demanding environment. 

In their daily work, an employee in this occupation may interact with other bakers and people from other teams and functions. This will depend on the type, size and structure of the bakery. Other teams and functions may include hygiene, maintenance, quality, warehousing, distribution and other retail sections. Typically, they report to a manager. They may also have contact with external personnel such as suppliers, auditors and regulators. In a retail environment, customer contact is a key part of the role.

An employee in this occupation is responsible for working by themselves or as part of a team under supervision. They must produce safe bakery products to specification. Deadlines, productivity, efficiency, hygiene and environmental requirements must be met. They must ensure the health and safety of self and others. This includes the safe operation and cleaning of tools and equipment. Retail bakers must also meet service expectations and present a professional image of themselves and the company to customers.


Typical job titles include:

Baker Baking operative Biscuiteer Confectioner In-store baker

Core occupation duties

Duty KSBs

Duty 1 Prepare bakery products for customer/consumers, including packaging and labelling of bakery products.

K1 K2 K6 K9 K11 K12 K13 K14 K16 K17 K19

S11 S16 S17 S18

B1 B2 B3

Duty 2 Contribute to material/stock control for bakery production for example, bakery ingredients, packaging, labels.

K7 K11 K12 K13 K14 K16 K17 K19

S14 S15 S18 S20 S21

B1 B2

Duty 3 Contribute to maintaining a clean and effective bakery production environment.

K11 K12 K13 K14 K17 K19

S11 S13 S18 S19

B1 B2

Duty 4 Complete bakery documentation and records - paper-based or electronic. For example, legal and process compliance checks, hygiene records, weights and production reporting.

K11 K12 K17 K18 K19

S18 S20 S21

B1 B2 B5

Duty 5 Contribute to resolving issues with and making improvements to bakery products/production.

K15 K17 K19

S18 S20 S21 S22

B1 B2 B3 B4 B6

Option duties



K1: The bakery sector: size and structure, types of customers, seasonal impact on bakery product demand. How and why production methods have evolved, current and emerging bakery technology and digitalisation: equipment and processes, reference sources and management information systems. Back to Duty

K2: Consumer requirements and current trends; impact on the bakery industry. Back to Duty

K3: Baking theory: mixing, proving, retarding, resting, baking, cooling; their function and how they affect product quality. Back to Duty

K4: Basic recipe formulation. Back to Duty

K5: Bakery methods and processes: weighing, mixing, dividing, proving, shaping, scaling, blocking/forming, baking, fry-off, pre-bake, cooling and finishing; requirements and purpose. Back to Duty

K6: Bakery equipment: different types of mixers, processing equipment, ovens, hotplates, knifes, packaging, labelling; their application, cleaning and operational checks requirements. Back to Duty

K7: Main bakery ingredients: flour, yeast, salt, sugar, fats, improvers, water, eggs; their origins, properties, nutritional value, purposes and uses, grades and quality, how they interact, storage, handling and transport. Back to Duty

K8: Principles of making dough: changes in physical properties during processing, types of dough for different products; bulk fermentation and no time doughs (Chorleywood bread process). Back to Duty

K9: Finished baked products requirements: packaging, labelling, storage, handling and transportation. Back to Duty

K10: Maximising product yield efficiency and waste minimisation. Back to Duty

K11: Bakery legislation, regulations and requirements: Food Safety, Allergen control, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), labelling, acrylamide, bakery-related asthmagens (powders), flour dust. Back to Duty

K12: Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Control of Substances Hazardous to Health, Risk assessments and method statements, manual handling, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and standard operating procedures. Back to Duty

K13: Environmental: Environmental protection Act 1990, sustainable and responsible use of resources and recycling. Back to Duty

K14: Hygiene procedures: personal hygiene standards and bakery hygiene. Back to Duty

K15: Common baking faults and issues; problem solving. Back to Duty

K16: Quality assurance and monitoring of processes. Back to Duty

K17: Verbal and non-verbal communication techniques. Back to Duty

K18: Documentation requirements; compliance records. Back to Duty

K19: Equality and diversity in the workplace. Back to Duty

K20: Craft baker. Different types of pastry: sweet, savoury. Back to Duty

K21: Craft baker. Raising agents used in confectionery: baking power, bicarbonate of soda, egg, egg white. Back to Duty

K22: Craft baker. Aeration techniques – mechanical, natural and chemical. Back to Duty

K23: Craft baker. Principles of lamination. Back to Duty

K24: Plant baker. Large scale production principles. Uniformity and consistency to drive consumer satisfaction. Back to Duty

K25: Plant baker. Automated and mechanical processing methods. Back to Duty

K26: Plant baker. Audit requirements. Back to Duty

K27: Plant baker. Ingredient management and batch processing in large scale production. Back to Duty

K28: Retail baker. Display requirements: plans, hot spots, relationship between sales and space, stock levels, height, rotation, replenishment. Back to Duty

K29: Retail baker. Customer service techniques; complaints process. Back to Duty

K30: Retail baker. Selling techniques: matching products to customers’ needs, up-selling. Back to Duty

K31: Retail baker. Product knowledge: suitability, complementary items. Back to Duty


S1: Read and interpret information for example, specification, recipe and production plan. Back to Duty

S2: Plan bakery tasks. Back to Duty

S3: Prepare for bakery tasks. Obtain materials. Back to Duty

S4: Prepare ingredients. Back to Duty

S5: Weigh or check weight of ingredients/products. Back to Duty

S6: Mix ingredients. Back to Duty

S7: Deposit, scale or cut/divide mixture. Back to Duty

S8: Mould products. Back to Duty

S9: Monitor prove. Back to Duty

S10: Pre-bake and/or post-bake dressing of product. Back to Duty

S11: Select, prepare/set-up and use equipment and machinery. Back to Duty

S12: Operate ovens. Back to Duty

S13: Clean and check tools and equipment. Back to Duty

S14: Monitor materials/stock levels and controls for example, first in first out, temperature and environment. Back to Duty

S15: Receive and store materials/stock from external suppliers and/or internal stores. Back to Duty

S16: Store finished goods. Back to Duty

S17: Package and label bakery products for example, allergens. Back to Duty

S18: Comply with health & safety, food safety, environmental procedures, PPE, hygiene and method statements. Back to Duty

S19: Clean and tidy work area. Dispose of waste and recycle. Back to Duty

S20: Communicate verbally for example, with colleagues, suppliers and customers. Back to Duty

S21: Record information - paper based or electronic. Back to Duty

S22: Identify bakery product problems/faults and underlying causes. Back to Duty

S23: Craft baker. Scale up/down a recipe using percentages. Back to Duty

S24: Craft baker. Prepare and apply fillings/coatings. Back to Duty

S25: Plant baker. Follow product changeover procedures. Back to Duty

S26: Plant baker. Check product specifications throughout the key process steps; identify and rectify or report production issues. Back to Duty

S27: Retail baker. Serve customers for example, determine customer’s needs, provide information, offer options and match bakery products to customers’ needs. Sell to customers for example, promote complementary items, promotional offers or seasonal products. Back to Duty

S28: Retail baker. Display and replenish bakery products. Back to Duty


B1: Prioritises health and safety and food safety. Back to Duty

B2: Takes ownership of work. For example, completes allocated tasks, seeks help if required. Back to Duty

B3: Consumer/customer focus. For example, strives to meet their needs. Back to Duty

B4: Adaptable. For example, responds positively to changing demands or new technology. Back to Duty

B5: Team worker. For example, polite, keeps others informed, helps colleagues, takes account of equality and diversity. Back to Duty

B6: Seeks learning and development opportunities. Back to Duty


English and Maths

English and maths qualifications form a mandatory part of all apprenticeships and must be completed before an apprentice can pass through gateway. The requirements are detailed in the current version of the apprenticeship funding rules.

Additional details

Occupational Level:


Duration (months):



This apprenticeship standard will be reviewed after three years

Status: Approved for delivery
Level: 2
Reference: ST0191
Version: 1.1
Date updated: 15/02/2023
Approved for delivery: 9 June 2017
Route: Catering and hospitality
Typical duration to gateway: 18 months (this does not include EPA period)
Maximum funding: £9000
Options: Craft baker, Plant baker, Retail baker
LARS Code: 177
EQA Provider: Ofqual

Find an apprenticeship

Contact us about this apprenticeship

Employers involved in creating the standard: Fullers Bakery, Hovis, London Bread Company, Morrisons Plc, Park Cakes, Sainsbury’s, Warburtons

Version log

Version Change detail Earliest start date Latest start date Latest end date
1.1 Funding band, standard and End-point assessment plan revised. The funding band was revised but remained. 22/12/2020 Not set Not set
1.0 Retired 09/06/2017 21/12/2020 Not set

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